For this task I will be looking into a early and contemporary practitioner for my chosen discipline which is 3D. One early practitioner that has inspired my discipline within 3D is John Carmack, he helped to influence the first era of first person shooting games in the 3D realm. John Carmack was a programmer that helped to start the experiment with engine mods He used to like creating engines which was when he came across one engine that worked really well and efficiently. It was more better than any other engine on the market at the time.

John Carmack is a video game developer, and director of id software.  John Carmack is a extraordinary programme. In 1993 Carmack and his peers at id software completely revolutionized gamin to a new perspective when he introduced the game Doom. John Carmack was born on August 20, 1970 in Shawnee mission, Kansas. Carmack had a “gifted-geek childhood” and played around with chemistry sets, built model rockets and played the fantasy role-playing game dungeons and dragons. Carmack and his company helped to release Quake, Quake 2, and Doom 2. Carmack has a huge amount of fans who look at him as a supreme coder. John Romeo and Adrian Carmack who were two fellow fanatics used Softdisks companies equipment to help create there first game Commander Keen. Carmack always stuck to what he knew best which was coding, he spent most of his time locked in his room practicing coding.

Doom levels are basically 2d maps that project upward to form a 3d structure. Players could also play the game on the basic map mode if they want to, this was due to the initial design of Doom.

The basic concept of the game is revolved a round a old strategy game called dungeons and dragons, the idea was based around a strategy of a ‘kill everything and get out alive’ kind of style.

Formal elements

For Doom there were a lot of formal elements that helped to create the game, the colour palette of the game was deliberately abstract but vivid in order to pull in the viewers attention. The lighting of the game was lit close, but far away the light seems to dip creating a more intense atmosphere. For the sound of the enemies they turned to Bobby Prince who created a mix of heavy metal and ambient music for the levels. The model and the texture of the guns were based of the guns colour. The guns they used as a reference were guns from Toys R Us with the pump action guns.


The narrative of the games was implemented very differently compared to games nowadays, the creators of Doom didn’t like the concept of story telling, they felt like a game could still be a good game without a in depth story, so they tried not to add to much story within the game itself.

The theme of the game was a more type of theme and motif which was to ‘basically kill everything and then get out alive’.

The game is a very fast paced game as when you would be playing you would always have to keep on edge and moving, making it more faster.

As you mostly focus on shooting you don’t really hear much about your character throughout the game, you also can’t see the design for the character apart from the arms and hand. The main character does seem to be male due to the genre of the game. The enemies are also basically of the hell spawned species which you have to fight throughout the game.

The environment was based a lot of the movie Alien and it has a lot of twists and turns in. The level design was a massive impact on this game, giving the game a whole new feel. This is one of the features that made the game successful.

The genre of the game was more so considered a Fantasy, Horror style of game. Fantasy come into it as you are fighting make believe enemies on a different planet. The reason it is considered a Horror is due to the gore, intense music and violence used within the game.

One subtext that is but into this game is religion. The Martians that create the a portal use science and religion only to discover a portal of hell. Fighting against demons. Almost representing human kind fighting against Satanism. (get feedback on this)

Doom has a large history for over 21 years which was originally realised by id software in the late 1993. Wolfenstein 3D was the first ever 3D shooter but it wasn’t until Doom came about when the whole 3D fps shooter trend started. Doom created a more better atmosphere than Wolfenstein 3D with lighting effect, giving the game more of a ‘dark, forbidding effect’. One of Dooms most Iconic weapons is the shotgun. Doom has sold over millions of copies world wide. One  great feature with Doom is how you can create your own levels and modify the game to how you want. After the first Doom’s success rate it was soon followed up by Doom 2 in 1994. The game was released as a full retail game rather than just shareware. For Doom 3 they used a new 3D engine which improved a lot within the game especially dramatic lighting and shadows. Doom 4 came out in 2011 but it was intended to come out in 2008. This is a extra developed game that brings it into the games we play today

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(Image used from primagames website- reference is down below)



When creating Doom the software used was the Raven software, although another game was created before hand using the Raven software, Doom still became successful after development. Doom was developed on NeXT workstations operating system. The engine was mostly built by John Carmack . Some of the editing tools used to build the games were scripts, to generate source code. Another tool to put WAD files and data lumps together was the BSB node builder which was made by John Carmack. Also the main tool was the Doomed level editor. This was were the game was structured and where they put in with basic functions. One major function was the drawing and reading lines sector. This is what helped to implement the 3d visualisation within Doom. Also textures for viewers and dialogues were entangled within the game which was added by Romero.

For the art side of things you had Adrian Carmack and Kevin Cloud who were the lead artists. Most of the sprites were drawn by hand, but some of the characters were digitalized from sculptures. The characters that were digitalized from sculptures were the main players character, the Cyber demon and the Baron on hell which was all made in clay. The Arch-vile, mancubus, spider mastermind and the revenant were all made from laxtex and metal. The sculptures were photographed from each side view of them, which could consist of four to eight angles so that they could be viewed in all different angles within the game.



For the sound side of things within Doom the id company hired Bobby Prince, he had done a score for Wolfenstein 3D. They asked Bobby Prince to create a heavy metal pieces for Doom but they realised after a while that some levels don’t match the heavy metal kind of feel so they added ambient sound instead. They also added in music tracks covers that were from famous heavy metal bands. The covers were conducted without and permission from the owners but no-one intended to go into legal actions against id software. The noises from the monsters and also the Foley sounds were implemented by animal sounds with recordings of Prince and Romero to.


To start of the process of making the game Doom the id software company had to start of by using the Doom rendering engine. They would start of by entering source codes to create features and help provide information for the game itself. The engine itself is not a true engine in order to create 3D. but it is fairly clever in order to make other perceive it as a 3D environment.

Next the level structure would be considered as it would need to be placed into the engine to get the mapping of the game within the engine. From this they would then layout information such as doors, enemies walls etc. In order to give a more accurate representation of the game.

all_ss_e1m1Image of SPB

They then placed in objects within the game so that it would all be ready for the engine, after that they would then make use of a system known as the binary space partitioning (BSP). This will allow the sectors to read the drawings of the textures and them place them out in front of the character as they are walking around. Therefore creating the illusion of a three- dimensional space.

Drawing things would be another process for creating a game as you would need to add in sprites, this will give the game more of a feeling of a first person shooters as the hand rendered drawing will be placed as enemies, for your character to consistently shot at.

They would then add in sources of music to make the game seem more realistic and atmospheric, They put the music in last as it was easier and also so that they wouldn’t give confused with the levels and have ambient music in a fast paced area where there should be heavy metal music.


One of the most important techniques which I have mentioned a lot is all to do with the Binary space partitioning (BSP) . This is because without this there would not be any three-dimensional element to the game, this is one of the games main feature. This is a technique used to generate data for a level so that it can be played.

In order to create the characters within Doom the artists of id software started of by doing basic sketches of what they wanted just some of their characters to look like. They would do this the traditional way, but now for Doom for they would mostly do it digitally in order to show a more better, more accurate design for the game.


This practitioner John Carmack has influenced my work because he helped to develop the first series of 3D first person games. Not only is the first person shooter genre one of my favourites by also my discipline is within 3D so John Carmack highly influences me to create more. If it wasn’t for John carmack and the id software there could be a possibility that there would be no existents of a first person shooter within the three-dimensional game. He passion to work hard and create new things all the time inspires me to want to work harder and create new things and work on them. John Carmack was so dedicated to his work that his type of holiday would be him sitting doing more coding and 3D work. When creating work I make sure to do the best I possible can, John Carmack’s work has helped me to get to here. Even the new Doom 4 is out and it inspires me too create a more horror sci-fi environment for my final major project.

Through looking into my practitioner I have gathered a lot of information from different sources showing me how the first series of 3D first person shooters were created. This has helped me to understand more about how the first development of 3D engines started. I also learnt how the game Doom was inspired by different subjects of media or games. Alien the film was a main focus for the game and helped to create the overall horror and fantasy effect for the game. Also Dungeons and Dragons was another key inspiration for the game Doom, this gave it the whole “hell is upon you” sort of feel, the reason being is because that’s what happened in one of the games they played. The Dungeon master (narrator) of the game brought them into hell and told them they had to escape. Giving them the basic concept for the game Doom. I think while researching about another industry practitioner it has made me see how games were then and also how games are now. Gathering research for Doom was much harder than I had expected, especially when looking into the history of Doom I found only certain amounts of sources and some of them keyed the same information.


Alien was also a practitioner for 3D as it helped to inspire the idea for Doom and it helped the id software company start to create 3D games. Ridley Scott was the director behind the film Alien. Ridley Scott was born November 30th in 1937. The place he was born in was South shields, Durham, England. The game

About Ridley Scott

Ridley Scott was born in South shields, Tyne and Wear, England. The Scott’s family seemed to move around a lot when Ridley was young. Ridley’s parents noticed his interest in art so they decided to enrol him in the West Hartpool College of Art. He proved to be a very talented painter and then went to the Royal College of Art in London (RCA). His aspiration then changed to wanting to become a production designer.

Ridley was experimenting with a old movie camera, this is what influenced Ridley to join the RCA’S new film program. He made a small short films earning him a British film grant. He then went to New York on a travel design scholarship. He dipped in photography and observed theatre and documentary film makers. Ridley then moved to London to start working with the BBC and he met and married Felicity. They then ended up having two sons. Ridley lately after divorced his wife and became a commercial director.

As Ridley Scott progressed with his skills he then went on to make his first featured film in 1977. This was called the Duellists which was set during Napoleonic wars, this pushed him into the position of creating one of the great films that was called Alien. Alien made over 1oo million dollars which initially started on a budget of 11 million dollars.

Formal elements

When looking at the Alien the colour palette is very dark and intense colours such as green and black this helped to create a lot of the atmosphere within the film. One of the really strong aspects of the film is the sound effects of the aliens as well as just ambience noise. With the aliens they give of a screechy yet deep roar, with gives you shivers down your spine when you listen to them. The ambience noise in the film is a sort of spooky yet sci-fi element to the overall sound


The story is very well put out through-out the movie, its starts of just like how Doom the film does where they send a marine into space, in order to figure out what is happening due to personnel going missing, they then find out about the Aliens so they make it they’re mission to kill every last on and then get out alive. I personally really love the plot for the story because even just writing about it you can tell how much of a action packed film it will be.

One of the lead characters was chosen as a female, the reason they done this was in order to reach a bigger audience for the film. They wanted to experiment with the idea and it became part of the production. This gave the film more interesting value because back in 1979 you would not really see many females playing the main role in a horror movie. Some of the actors would wear yellow suits that have piping on and they got the ideas from star wars for parts of the outfit, they also had different nationalized badges with quilted knee pads. Then helmet was made out of fiber glass with a bronze finish, they’re was also a practical light on top. The backpack were heavy and it was used to represent a air supply. Gloves were made out of plastic and boots were also plastic. The chest pack was heavy and also made of fibber glass. It also had a chest and arm shoulder pads. Through-out the movie you also see the actors use various different props to assist them when they are acting giving everything a more authentic feel.


When Alien was first made they started of by first of all writing the story of Alien which was influenced by Giger’s work, who was a artist who done dark disturbing art. Then Ridley got the script and really enjoyed reading it. When working Star wars came out and they got inspired by the sci-fi element of Star wars. They then got Giger to design some of the concepts for the film as well as the front cover. Then Ridley saw the designs and said straight away “that’s it” therefore using a budget of 2.4 million to create it. He created the story board and with the story board managed to double the budget.


For the scenes and the environments they went to a old aircraft grave-yard and used the scraps from bits of the aircrafts to create the sci-fi environment look inside of the construction. For the hanger and drivers seat in the film they used old ejectors seats from aircraft’s. They also got Ridley and Giger to sketch out scenes of Alien so that they could get a more vivid idea inside of they’re heads. They also had made practical props that were used during filming which helped to give alot of the scenes a more authentic feel when acting was happening. The actual set was made to appear very claustrophobic and they had to change a lot of it around during production, which included cutting down walls etc. Ridley made the set very practical and made sure when actors pressed buttons it would open doors and turn on lights etc. Everything that was seen as alien in the film was all of Gigers ideas and drawing coming to life in the film. Some of the environments needed assets like massive bones but they couldn’t affored them so instead they made a bleak landscape which was carved out of foam bored or would and then plastered over to sculpt them into place. Giger made sure that it was all painted before they filmed the scene with the bone set.Giger was very practical on set and didn’t just do drawing he also helped scuplt and create assets like the alien eggs, which he got to look transparent, and the moving membrane inside was all done mechanical.

One of the most important scenes in Alien was the heart burst scene, this was said to be the scene that made the film a more success. One of the artists got the idea got the idea from a wasps that paralysis the spider and lays the eggs inside the spider. This created the whole concept for the scene. They took on Ricken Dicken to create the alien heart burst rig which made the alien burst through the shirt. One of the actor was actual sick from watching the scene it was that powerful, all of the other people working on the set was frightened but that though it was a fantastic idea. The actor for the alien creature was a very tall person whole was 6ft or more tall and they sculpted the costume and they used latex making the jaw work and they also got the mouth mechanism.

Sound effects were used a lot through the film to make it more authentic and real and give the whole film life. It also had very strong music to emphasize the environment and create a more intense atmosphere. Sound was a very important aspect in the film and it create most of the scary atmosphere within the film.



This is my data correlation of what I personally believe catches the most fear of the two, this is a easy but effective method to compare visually of the two. When I wrote characters I was also on about the enemies and aliens. I put textures at quite a high level due to the fact that the Alien set was all made by hand, nothing was cgi and everything on the set was also very practical. Making the whole film very authentic. Also sound came up fairly high for both Doom and Alien due to it increasing the intensity of the atmosphere within both secots of Doom and Alien.

Overall from researching my practitioners I have learned a lot about 3d and some of its history as well as what helped to influence the first 3d game. I done a lot of secondary research but one thing I could have done better with is the primary research which I could ask people in order to collect data for my visualization chart for Doom and Alien. After researching everything I now have a better understanding of what it takes to create 3d as well as intense horror atmosphere which is a genre I personal am comfortable with.

Both of these practitioners have been a great influence for my discipline because without both of them we wouldn’t be in the 3D game world we are now and everything would still be considered 2D. Also researching and developing my knowledge within the realm of 3d has made me understand more about how 3D works and how it first came about. I talked about Alien as it helped inspired the game Doom. It also has a fascinating genre which I hope to use to inform my extended project as it produces very atmospheric environments. It also helped me to understand the process of coming up with a idea for creating a new film/game.



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Julie Asbury . 2017. Primagames. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 February 2017].

Fandom. 2017. Development of Doom . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 February 2017].


Fandom . 2017. Doom rendering engine . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 February 2017].

IGN. 1996. Newly released concept art is gorgeous and creepy. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 24 February 2017].

Uknown, (2017), Doom turns 20 [ONLINE]. Available at: [Accessed 24 February 2017].


Grade saver. 1999. Biography of Ridley Scott . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 1 March 2017].

HOLLOWm9n. (2016). The alien Legacy (1999), documentry about 1979 Alien film. [Online Video]. 3 March 2016. Available from: [Accessed: 14 March 2017].